In Bosnian magic tradition there are numerous ways of defending oneself from negative energy (black magic, evil eyes, demons) but the use of amulets is considered to be especially efficient and effective. Wearing the amulet, besides having an effect on the physical body and aura, has a psychological effect since it gives additional dose of security and self-confidence to the wearer. According to traditional belief it is recommended for every man to wear an amulet in order to be protected from negative energy with which he comes into contact with daily, especially when coming into contact with other people.
Every man has his own destiny, whose course is mostly dominated by luck, but, that positive energy is often blocked by other people with their negative emotions, especially jealousy or black magic. Then the life force of the man can often be blocked and he usually acts only with 50% of his capacity and he doesn't achieve significant results. He constantly has the same negative things occur to him, failures and accidents. The person cannot find an adequate love partner, have business success or he is often sick. That of course has direct effect on the psyche which results in lack of self-confidence, depression, anxious, increased stress, etc. The thing which is especially important when using an amulet is the fact that it has the same effect on the person that believes in its power and on the one that is suspicious.
The content of the amulet, hirz or hijab, is varied and depends mostly on the spiritual knowledge of the one creating it that's why we come across amulets with only one or numerous prayers, amulets with magical squares and certain quotes from the Qur'an, amulets with letters, figures of a human, sword, snake, or amulets with all of the above. In a text amulets of an unknown mage the use and function of the amulet is best described: "To protect from the devil, Jinn, wizard, afrits, against attack, pain, disease of eyes, headaches, weakness, red wind (Erizipel), fever and every disease. The best protection is with Allah. The Merciful always forgives. There is neither power nor strength, only with God, Magnificent and Omnipotent!"
Though it has the power to act in all the mentioned segments people use it mostly if they were victims of a magical attack or they feel that they could become victims. That's why an amulet is always constructed when a man desires to do so, in order to obtain immunity against the negative effect of other people, or as a mandatory rule after the process of elimination of black magic, in order to protect oneself and prevent a possible return of magic.
Namely, like good, evil is also an indestructible energy which can only be moved or transferred onto another person or location. That practice is very famous in Bosnian tradition and the targets of such occult transmissions were usually special categories of people such as "women whose hair is falling out", "men that are going to the mosque", "people separating in a flea market", etc. A strict rule that everyone must follow is that evil mustn't be directed at children nor pregnant women. Rather than everything mentioned the practitioner of white magic directs all negative energy onto abandoned houses or mills or generally "to the dark Hawaii", mythological wasteland, where no sound is heard and where there is no fertility.
Though generally there is a belief that amulet against evil can be created at any time of the day or night, there are still certain preferences which the Bosnian mages adhere to, namely, amulet is traditionally always waited for, i.e. the client has ordered it and after 15 or 30 days he gets it. The reason for this is that in Bosnia it is constructed in the second half of the lunar cycle, last 14 days prior to the lunar cycle, always after midnight. In that way it receives a specific power of protection and elimination of every magical effect.
Since the amulet, at least for the first 40 days, must be in contact with the body, the mage folds the paper he used to write and draw symbols into a shape of a triangle, then it is wrapped in sticky tape and subsequently wrapped in a red cloth, or red cloth bag, and after the expiration of that period it can be carried in the wallet or purse. To the question, why is the bodily contact necessary for the initial 40 days, the simplest answer is that this number represents symbols of physical and spiritual regeneration, but also fate, and that's why it is very present in the tradition of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Text, i.e. the content of the amulet must not come into contact with dust or moisture, that's why it must be protected by sticky tape, so that it's owner can go to the toilet or other places which are considered to be unclean. With the amulet as an addition one often places a leaf of nacre (Ruta graveolens) because of its apotropaic characteristics. It is mandatory to bathe it in smoke from the root of elecampane (Inula helenium) using a special formula.
Every time when the amulet is given to the client, the mage or Imam warns him that he must take care of it since it can lose its power of protection if someone accidentally or on purpose punctures it with a needle and in such a manner it disrupts its content. That's why an amulet is always taken care of. Similarly, if someone steals your amulet then they can hurt you with black magic.
Besides it having a function to protect from negative energy the amulet is very efficient against diseases but also negative propaganda. Today, as in the past, many companies as well as business people order amulets in order to protect their business space from hate and jealousy of the competition which often uses black magic to destroy their enemies.
There are a few type of amulets: for the protection of individuals, protection of the house, business object, for the protection of the land, etc. If the amulet is being constructed for a person from the family which doesn't want to carry it with herself then the amulet is constructed using a small picture of the owner and is wrapped in a special cloth, coated in wax, then it is positioned above the bed which the man uses to sleep. From that place it will protect him from black magic and attack from the Jinn (demon's).